Glossary

For easier comprehension, please read and understand the meanings of the following words, which are oft repeated in the article.

Salaat or Namaaz - The customary Prayer of Muslims.

Imam - Leader of the congregation in Prayer.

Adhaan - The call to Prayer

Muaddhin - One who announces the “Adhaan”

Iqamah - Announcement that the congregational Prayer has been established.

Khutbah - The sermon.

Niyyah - Intention.

Fard - Obligatory.

Wajib - Essential, mandatory.

Sunnah - The tradition of the Beloved Prophet .

Moukkaddah - Emphasised.

Ghair Moukkaddah - Non-emphasised.

Nafil - Voluntary or additional.

Wudu - Ablution (with water)

Ghusl - A bath (with water)

Masah - To stroke (wipe) or rub gently over.

Miswaak - A small branch or stem, used for brushing teeth.

Khilaal - Act of removing dirt or particles (e.g. stuck between teeth, toes)

Tayammum - An alternate to ablution/bath, by using soil or like matter.

Makrooh - An act that is disliked/disapproved.

Kalimah - Any meaningful phrase.

Tayyeb or Tayyebah - Pure

Janabah - State of greater impurity due to sexual defilement.

Mustahab - Recommended, better

Makrooh Tahreemi - An act that is strongly disliked, close to forbidden.

Haraam - Forbidden/prohibited.

Rakaat - A single round/cycle of all bodily actions within a Prayer.

Taawuz - Seeking Allah’s refuge

Tasmiyah - Reciting Bismillah Shareef

Tasmeey - A remembrance during Prayer, while rising from the bow.

Tasbeeh - A remembrance proclaiming Allah’s purity.

Dua - Supplication.

Tahmeed - A remembrance praising Allah.


Important Note : Arabic text from Qur'an and “Sunnah” have been transliterated into English, in italic form. However it is not possible to pronounce the words correctly from transliteration (especially similar sounding alphabets) and readers are advised to learn these from the Arabic text.

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What is Prayer ?

CHAPTER 1

WHAT IS PRAYER (SALAAT) ??

The Prayer is:

The coolness of the eyes of the Beloved Prophet Muhammad 

A pillar of religion

The key to paradise

The spiritual ascent of the faithful believer

The greater Jihad (holy war)

A sign of faith

Light of the heart

The radiance of the face

The nourishment of the soul


The Prayer is:

A cause of blessings in the house

A cause of abundance in provision

Cure for ailments of the body and soul

A light in the gloom of the grave

A canopy in the hot sun on the Day of Resurrection


The Prayer is:

An entertainer of the heart amidst the fear of the grave

A swift carrier across the thin bridge on the Day of Resurrection

A means of attaining forgiveness from sins

A barrier between hell and the offerer of Prayers

A repeller of the devil

A bestower of Allah's proximity and His favour


After proper acceptance of faith and its inherent beliefs, i.e. the recitation of the Pure Words (Kalimah Tayyebah), the most important duty is that of offering the Prayer.


The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) has stated: "The first duty that Allah, the Supreme, has ordained upon my nation is that of offering Prayer, and indeed Prayer is the first thing that will be taken account of on the Day of Resurrection." It is also reported in the Hadith that, "Whoever keeps the Prayer established, has kept his religion established - and whoever leaves Prayer has demolished religion".


It is reported by Sayyadina Abu Hurairah (may Allah be well pleased with him) that the Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) said: “Allah the Supreme states, 'O the son of Adam !! Free yourself for My worship, I shall fill your heart with content - and if you do not do so, I shall make you busy in several affairs but not remove your poverty.' " (Mishkaat ul Masabeeh, Ibn Majah)


"Be content with five things before (the advent of) the other five: Youth before old age, good health before sickness, prosperity before poverty, spare time before indulgence in affairs, and life before death." (Hadith reported in Tirmidhi)


Regrettably, the Muslims of this age have forgotten Prayer. Most people simply do not have the time for it, whereas some people do offer their Prayers but do not know the proper way of offering it. It is imperative to learn the correct way of offering the Prayer, and to offer all the 5 Obligatory Prayers with the congregation.


This concise book attempts to highlight the importance, excellence, mode and rules of Prayer from the Noble Qur'an al hakeem, Hadith, books of Hanafi Jurisprudence, Fatawa Razvia and Bahaare Shariat. May Allah grant all Muslims the guidance to seek religious knowledge and to act upon it - A'meen (and through the supplications of the Beloved Prophet -Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam).

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Importance


The importance of Prayer (SALAAT)

The importance of establishing Prayer has been mentioned in the Qur'an al kareem & Hadith, on several occasions:

Allah the Supreme states in the Qur'an al kareem:

“And keep the Prayer established, and pay the charity, and bow your heads with those who bow (in Prayer).”(Surah Baqarah)

On another occasion, it is stated:


“Guard all your Prayers, and the middle Prayer; and stand with reverence before Allah.” (Surah Baqarah)


On yet another occasion, it is stated:


“And keep the Prayer established at the two ends of the day and in some parts of the night.” (Surah Hud)


The "two ends of the day" mean the morning and evening. The time before noon is classified as morning and the time after it is classified as evening. The Morning Prayer is the Dawn (Fajr) Prayer, and the Prayers of the evening are the Afternoon (Duhr) and the Evening (Asr) Prayers. The Prayers for the night are the Sunset (Maghrib) and the Night (Isha) Prayers. (Tafseer Khazain ul Irfan)

The Qur'an al kareem classifies Prayer as an act that is opposite to the habits of polytheists. It states,

'Inclining towards Him - and fear Him, and keep the Prayer established, and never be of the polytheists'. (Surah Ruum)


In other words, not offering the Prayer is to be like the polytheists. This is further confirmed by the words of the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam "The entity that lies between a bondman and disbelief, is the abandonment of Prayer." (Saheeh Muslim)

The Qur'an al kareem warns those who abandon Prayer, in the following words:

“And after them came the unworthy successors who squandered Prayer and pursued their own desires, so they will soon encounter the forest of Gai in hell.” (Surah Maryam)

“Gai” is a well in the lowest part of hell, in which accumulates the pus of its inhabitants. It is also mentioned that “Gai” is the hottest and deepest part of hell. This is the well which Allah opens up whenever the heat of hell lessens, causing the fire of hell to rage again. This well is the destination of those who abandon Prayer – and adulterers, drunkards, usurers and those who hurt their parents.

The Qur'an al kareem has mentioned a trait of the hypocrites, that they are lazy in offering Prayers, and that they deem it to be a burden. It therefore states:


“Undoubtedly the hypocrites, in their fancy, seek to deceive Allah whereas He will extinguish them while making them oblivious; and when they stand up for Prayer, they do it unwillingly and for others to see, and they do not remember Allah except a little.” (Surah Nisaa)

The Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said the following about the hypocrites:


“The most burdensome Prayers for the hypocrites are the Night Prayer and the Dawn Prayer. If they were to know the blessings they have in store, they would have come to them, even slithering.” (Saheeh Bukhari & Saheeh Muslim)


The Qur'an al kareem also explains that offering the Prayer is not at all a burden for those who believe in Allah and the Last Day. It says:


“And seek help in patience and Prayer; and truly it is hard except for those who prostrate before Me with sincerity - Who know that they have to meet their Lord, and that it is to Him they are to return.” (Surah Baqarah)

We therefore know from the Qur'an al kareem, and from the Hadith, that it is obligatory on all Muslims to offer Prayers 5 times daily. To be lazy in Prayer, and especially not to offer the Night and Dawn Prayers, are the traits of hypocrites. We also know that not offering Prayer is the way of the disbelievers - this is why the Sahabah (the Companions of the Beloved Prophet) did not deem the abandonment of any deed as disbelief, except the abandonment of Prayer.


The importance of Prayer can be gauged from the fact that it has been emphasised right from childhood. The Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said:


“Command your children to pray when they become seven years old, and beat them for it (Prayer) when they become ten years old; and arrange their beds (to sleep) separately.

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Lapsed Salaat

The sin of letting the Prayer lapse


The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) has said: “Whoever lets the Prayer lapse, and then offers it after its due time, will burn in hell for not praying on time, for a period of one "Haqab".”

One "Haqab" equals 80 years, and one year has 360 days, and the Day of Resurrection will equal a thousand years. Which means that one who lets just one Prayer lapse, will burn in hell for a period of 28,800,000 years !! (May Allah protect us - A'ameen).


Allamah Amjad Ali Aazmi (may Allah have mercy on him) mentions that abandoning Prayer is terrible in itself, but see what Allah, the Supreme, says about those who let it lapse: “So “vail” (or ruin) is to those offerers of Prayer - Those who are neglectful of their Prayer.” (Surah Ma'oon)


“Vail” is the name of a dreadful valley in hell, from which hell also seeks refuge. This will be the destination of those who let their Prayers lapse. (Bahaar-e-Shariat)

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Blessings 



The Blessings of Prayer

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The Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam said:


'If there was a river at the door of anyone of you and he took a bath in it five times a day, would you notice any dirt on him ??'

The Companions said: 'Not a trace of dirt would be left'.

The Noble Prophet added, “That is the example of the five Prayers with which Allah annuls evil deeds'.
(Saheeh Bukhari & Saheeh Muslim)


Here 'evil deeds' mean the lesser sins. The cardinal sins are forgiven only after repentance and giving the people their due rights.


It is recorded in Mishkaat Shareef that once during the winter season, the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam caught hold of a tree branch and shook it, causing its leaves to fall. He then said:

“When a Muslim offers Prayer, seeking Allah's pleasure, his sins fall off like these leaves did.”

The Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has also said:

'For the one who is regular in his Prayer, the Prayer will become a light, a guide and the cause of his salvation on the Day of Resurrection. Whereas the one who is not regular in his Prayers, will not have any light, guide or salvation - and on the Day of Resurrection, he will be along with Qaroon, Firaun, Hamaan, Ubai bin Khalaf' - i.e. with the major infidels. (Mishkaat)

Another blessing of Prayer is that all hardships are resolved through it, and the offerer gains solace from it. Hadrat Huzaifah (may Allah be well pleased with him) says that whenever the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam was faced with any difficulty, he used to turn his attention towards Prayer. (Abu Dawood)

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Jama'at

The Excellence of offering Prayer in congregation (With Jamaat)

The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) has said: “The Prayer in congregation is twenty seven times superior to the Prayer offered by a person alone.” (Bukhari & Muslim)

The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) found some people absenting themselves from certain Prayers and he said: “I intend to order someone to lead people in Prayer, and then go to the persons who do not join the (congregational) Prayer and then order their houses to be burnt by the bundles of fuel. If one amongst them were to know that he would find a fat fleshy bone he would attend the Night Prayer.” (Muslim & Abu Dawood)

Abu Huraira (may Allah be well pleased with him) reported that the Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) said: “A man's Prayer in congregation is more valuable by twenty degrees and some above them as compared with his Prayer in his house and his market, for when he performs ablution doing it well, then goes out to the mosque, and he is impelled (to do so) only by (the love of congregational) Prayer, he has no other objective before him but Prayer. He does not take a step without being raised a degree for it and having a sin remitted for it, till he enters the mosque, and when he is busy in Prayer after having entered the mosque, the angels continue to invoke blessing on him as long as he is in his place of worship saying: O Allah, show him mercy, and pardon him !! Accept his repentance (and the angels continue this supplication for him) so long as he does not do any harm in it, or as long as his ablution is not broken.” (Saheeh Muslim)

Abdullah ibn Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him) reported that the Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) said: “If anyone hears him who makes the call to Prayer and is not prevented from joining the congregation by any excuse (he was asked what an excuse consisted of and replied that it was fear or illness) the Prayer he offers will not be accepted from him.” (Abu Dawood)

If the one who misses the congregational Prayer knew what reward lay in it for him, he would come to it slithering. (Tibrani)

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Reverence and Humility

The importance of reverence and humility

The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) states: “Worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you cannot do this, then you must at least be certain that He is looking at you." (Saheeh Bukhari)

The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) states: “Whoever offers all his Prayers on time after a perfect ablution, stands with humility and reverence, prostrates and bows with calm, and offers the entire Prayer in good manner - so that Prayer becomes a radiating one and prays for him thus: O the offerer of Prayer !! May Allah guard you the way you have guarded me. And as regards the one who offers the Prayer poorly - that is without proper ablution, and not even prostrating and bowing correctly - then the Prayer curses him thus: May Allah ruin you the way you have ruined me. Then the Prayer is folded and thrown back at his face like a used (dirty) cloth.” (Tibrani).

The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) once said: “The worst thief is one who steals during the Prayer.” The companions therefore asked "O the Messenger of Allah !! How does he steal in Prayer ??” He answered "He does not prostrate or bow correctly." (Musnad Imaam Ahmed & Tibrani)

In yet another Hadith, glad tidings of salvation have been given to those who regularly offer their Prayers with humility and reverence. (Abu Dawood). Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him) states: "The reverent ones are those who fear Allah and offer their Prayers with calm." It is clear from the above that Prayer must be offered with reverence, humility and calm, keeping in mind all its requirements.

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Pious Salaat

Prayer makes one pious

Allah, the Supreme, states in the Noble Qur'an al kareem: “O dear Prophet (Muhammad - Salla Allahu alayhi wa Sallam), recite from the Book which has been sent down to you, and establish the Prayer; indeed the Prayer stops from indecency and evil; and indeed the remembrance of Allah is the greatest; and Allah knows all what you do.” (Surah Ankabut)

The above verse reveals that Prayer stops from indecency and evil matters - which means that if one offers the Prayer regularly and properly, he shuns indecent matters in due course, and becomes pious.

A young man from the Ansar used to pray alongwith the Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam), and was simultaneously also given to involving himself in cardinal sins. The matter was reported to the Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) who said: “His Prayer will some day prevent him from these evil acts". Very soon, he therefore repented and his state became better.

Hadrat Anas (may Allah be well pleased with him) said: “If the Prayer does not prevent one from indecency and evil, then that is not Prayer." (Tafseer Khazain ul Irfaan)

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Salaat has been accepted ?

Being certain that the Prayer has been accepted

Do not ever get distracted by the worldly affairs that come to mind while offering Prayer. Rather do not care about them, and pay attention to the meanings of the words that are being said during the Prayer.

Some people question as to how they can be sure whether Allah has accepted the Prayer that they have offered. As an answer, just reflect upon the following Hadith: "Allah will deal with His bondman on the Day of Resurrection in the same manner as the bondman had thought about his Lord". It is therefore imperative, alongwith the fear of Allah, to have the good belief that our worship has been accepted.

Scholars say that if you have offered the Dawn Prayer and then later offered the Afternoon Prayer, then be well convinced that Allah has accepted your Dawn Prayer. Further, when you have offered the Evening Prayer, be convinced that the Afternoon Prayer has been accepted. Similarly, after each Prayer, be sure that the previous Prayer has been accepted - because if Allah had not accepted your Dawn Prayer, he would not guide you to offer the Afternoon Prayer. The Beneficent Lord's guidance to you to offer the next Prayer is a proof of His having accepted your previous one.

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Salaat of the Pious

The Prayers Of The Pious

Every Prayer should be offered like a person who is certain that it is the last Prayer of his life. Hadrat Hatim Balkhi (may Allah have mercy upon him) was once questioned as to how he offered his Prayers. He answered, "When it is time for Prayer, I do a proper ablution and stand calmly on the prayer-mat. I imagine that the Sacred Ka'aba is in front of me, Paradise on my right, hell on my left, and that I am standing on the thin bridge (of the Day of Resurrection) - and that the angel of death is above me and that this is the last Prayer of my life. Then with utmost humility I proclaim "Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest)" and keeping the meanings in mind, I recite the Noble Qur'an - and with extreme reverence and humility I complete the Prayers. I then hope that Allah will accept it by His mercy, and fear that it may be rejected because of the shortcomings of my deeds."

Such is the Prayer of the Friends of Allah !! May Allah guide us to follow the footsteps of His friends. A'meen.

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Taharat

CLEANLINESS (TAHARAT)

The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) has stated "The key to paradise is Prayer (Salaat), and the key to Prayer is cleanliness." (Saheeh Muslim). Here cleanliness means that the place of Prayer and the person’s clothes, should be clean. Furthermore, the person should be clean from the greater and smaller impurities - i.e. he should not be in need of a bath (Ghusl) and should be with ablution (Wudu).


The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) said: “The angels of mercy do not enter a house in which there is an image, a dog or a person in a state of greater impurity (Janabah)." (Abu Dawood).

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Water

The water to be used

Water used for bathing or for ablution must be in its natural state - i.e. free from colour, smell and taste. Furthermore, it must be unused. If the body is free from impurities, the water once used for bathing or ablution still remains pure, but cannot be used again for bathing or ablution. Similarly if one is in need of ablution or bath, and he dips or touches the water with any unwashed (un-purified) part of his body (finger, nail, hand etc), it will render the water as used - and therefore not useful for ablution or bathing. Using such water for drinking or cooking is disliked (Makrooh). However this water can be used for washing clothes.

In order to make "used" water capable of being used for bathing or ablution, add clean unused water in greater quantity to it - or simply pour more clean unused water in the utensil so that the utensil begins to overflow. This will make the entire water usable for bathing or ablution.

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Obligations

Ablution (Wudu)

The obligations in ablution (wudu)

The following four (4) acts are obligatory in ablution:

a.Washing the entire face: that is from the top of the forehead to the bottom of the chin and from ear to ear. Water must flow over the entire skin area at least once. If the moustache or eyebrows have thick hair, it is obligatory only to wash the hair. If the hair is sparse, the skin must also be washed. Similarly, if hair in the beard is not thick, the inner skin must be washed. The area around the lips which remains exposed in the natural state when the mouth is closed, must also be washed.

b.Washing both hands, up to and including the elbows. Washing any body part means that at least two drops of water must have flowed over each and every spot of it (not leaving out any spot equal to the breadth of a hair). Simply wetting the body part or spreading water over it like oil, or the flowing of just drop is not classified as "washing" - and will not complete the ablution or bath. All types of ornaments which are tight to the skin must be removed and the skin below it washed, as described above. If nail polish has been applied, ablution or bath cannot be complete without removing it. However, ablution or bath will be complete in cases where the thing remaining on the skin is such that it is continuously or sometimes required and to remove it causes a burden - whether such a thing is above or below the nails or on any other part of the body - or whether such a thing is hard and water does not reach the skin below it - such as dough on the hands of kneaders, paint on the hands of a painter, henna for women, ink for the writer, sand or mud for the labourer and kohl under the eyelids or ordinary dirt for the common man.

c."Masah" (Stroking with wet hands) of one fourth of the head: Hands should be wet for performing the "Masah" whether due to water remaining from washing the hands, or by wetting them with fresh water. If the hands remain wet after "Masah", it will not suffice for "Masah" of any other body part.

d.Washing both feet: It is necessary to wash both feet fully - i.e. all sides of toes, inner parts of the toes, top part of the toes, heels, soles and the entire ankles. If water does not reach between the toes naturally, it is necessary to do “Khilaal”, i.e. pass the little finger between them to make the water reach there.

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Sunnah

The Sunnah (Prophet's   traditions ) in ablution (wudu)

The following acts are Sunnah (Prophet's  traditions) in ablution:

?Making an intention (Niyah) for obeying Allah and for the gaining of reward.
?Performing ablution while sitting in a clean place.
?Reciting "Bismillah Shareef" at the beginning of ablution.
?Washing both hands up to the wrists.
?Brushing the teeth with "Miswaak"
?Rinsing the mouth thrice with water from the hand.
?Rinsing the nose thrice by inhaling water up to the nose bone.
?Using the right hand for inhaling water into the nose.
?Cleaning the nose with the little finger of the left hand.
?Inserting fingers between the spaces in the fingers and toes (to make sure that water passes through it).
?Running all fingers through the beard.
?Performing "Masah" of the entire head.
?Performing "Masah" of the ears.
?Maintaining proper order of washing of the different body parts.
?Washing three times each body part that needs to be washed.
?Washing the next body part before the previous one dries.

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Method of Wudu

Method of performing ablution (wudu)

Make an intention (Niyah) for obeying Allah and for gaining of reward, and after reciting "Bismillah Shareef", wash both hands up to the wrists. Then brush the teeth with "Miswaak". Hold the "Miswaak" in your right hand - little finger at the bottom, three middle fingers at the centre, and the thumb at the top bottom side of the "Miswaak". Begin with the right upper teeth, followed by the left upper teeth. Then brush the right lower teeth followed by the left lower teeth. Brushing should be in horizontal movements.

Then taking water from the cup of the hand, rinse the mouth thrice. Then inhale water into the nose thrice and clean the nose with the little finger of the left hand.

Then wash the entire face - that is from the top of the forehead (where the hair begins) to the bottom of the chin and from ear to ear, without leaving any spot equal to the breadth of a hair unwashed. If the person is bearded, he should then run his fingers through the beard.

After this, wash both hands, up to and including the elbows (right hand first, followed by the left).

Then wet both hands and perform "Masah" of the entire head, as follows: Join the tips of the three fingers of both hands (i.e. other than the thumb and the little finger), and keeping them on the forehead pass them over the entire head till the nape of the neck, while keeping the palms away from the head. Pass the palms over the nape of the neck and bring them forward. Then use the upper phalanx of the index finger to rub the inner part of the ears and the thumb for the back of the ears. Then use the back of the fingers to do "Masah" of the sides of the neck.

Then wash both feet up to and including the ankles, beginning with the right foot. Use the left hand for washing the feet. Insert the left hand little finger between the spaces of all toes, starting from the small toe (moving right to left) in case of the right foot, and starting from the big toe (moving right to left) in case of the left foot.

Upon completing ablution, make it a habit of reciting the “Kalimah Shahadat” (The words of bearing witness) as in the Hadith there are glad tidings of paradise for such a person.

Nullify Wudu

Things that break (nullify) ablution (wudu)

The following acts (or incidents) break the ablution:

•Excretion of any matter from the frontal or posterior excretory organs.
•Vomiting in mouthful quantity.
•Discharge of blood, pus or yellowish liquid from the body - which makes the discharge flow.
•Sleeping while taking support from any object.
•Flow of water from an infected eye.
•Laughing out loud whilst in Prayer.
•Loss of consciousness, or onset of insanity.

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Miswaak

The excellence of Miswaak

The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) said: “If I had not found it hard for my followers or the people, I would have ordered them to clean their teeth with Miswaak for every Prayer."

The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) also said: “Make the (brushing with) "Miswaak" a must - for it cleans the mouth, and the Lord also gets pleased. (Musnad Ahmed)

Scholars say that using the "Miswaak" has 70 benefits, of which one is the remembrance of the “Kalemah Tayyebah” (the Pure Words) at the time of death and ease in death.

Using the "Miswaak" is a Sunnah in ablution. The "Miswaak" should neither be very hard nor very soft. It is better to use "Miswaak" made from branches of the olive, “pilu” or “neem” trees. The "Miswaak" should be as thick as the little finger, and a maximum of one span in length. It should also not be very short so as to make it difficult to use.

Hold the "Miswaak" in your right hand - little finger at the bottom, three middle fingers at the centre, and the thumb at the top bottom side of the "Miswaak". Do not close the fist. In this way, the user remains protected from "haemorrhoids" (piles). Brushing should be done in 'horizontal' movements, not in the vertical. Begin with the right upper teeth, followed by the left upper teeth. Then brush the right lower teeth followed by the left lower teeth. All these should be done thrice, and the "Miswaak" be rinsed every time.

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BATHING

The 3 obligations on bathing (Ghusl)

a.Gargling: Water must reach right from the lips up to the base of the throat.
b.Inhaling water up to the nose bone: Water must reach through both nostrils and wet the entire area, up to the nose bone.
c.Washing the entire body in such a manner that water flows over every part of the body, not leaving dry any spot equal to the breadth of a hair.

If any food particles are stuck in the teeth, these must be removed. Likewise the nose must be cleaned from any dust stuck inside it, and then the nose washed with water up to the beginning of the nose bone. However, care must be exercised during fasting so as not to overdo it.

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Sunnah of Ghusl

Bathing (Ghusl) according to Sunnah

Make an intention (Niyah) for bathing and at first wash both hands up to and including the wrists. Then wash the excretory organs even if there is no impurity. Then cleanse the body area that has any impurity and perform the ablution, without washing the feet. If having a bath on a stand (high area) you may wash the feet too. Next, rub water (like applying oil) on the body to wet it. Then pour water thrice over the right shoulder followed by thrice over left shoulder. After this, pour water over the head thrice and then thrice properly over the entire body. Rub the hands over the entire body to ensure that no spot equal to the breadth of a hair remains dry. If the feet had not been washed at ablution, wash them after moving away from the bathing spot.

While bathing take care that you should not be facing the ''Qiblah'', nor speak nor recite any supplications. Also bathe in a place where there is no exposure.

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Compulsory Ghusl

Things that make bathing compulsory

•Discharge of semen in state of sexual excitement.
•Ejaculation while asleep.
•Intercourse, whether semen is discharged or not.
•Woman completing her menses.
•Stoppage of impurity for a woman after childbirth (or miscarriage etc.).

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Tayammum

The time for Tayammum

(When can one do Tayammum ?)


A person in need of bathing or ablution must do "Tayammum" if he is incapable of using water. Some important conditions of performing "Tayammum" are as follows:

•There should be no sign (or knowledge) of water being available for a distance of at least one mile, in all the four directions.
•An illness which would get severely aggravated or get prolonged upon using water. This could be the person’s own judgement from experience or the opinion of a pious reliable doctor.
•Extreme cold which could cause the person to die or fall ill if he takes a bath, and no warm blankets are available to keep out the cold after bathing.
•Danger of missing the train or bus etc., if he alights from it in order to use water.
•Danger of missing the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer or the congregational Prayers of Eid

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Rules regarding Tayammum

Method and some important rules regarding Tayammum


Three things are obligatory in "Tayammum"

a.Making an intention (Niyah) that the particular "Tayammum" is for ablution or for bath or for both.
b.Passing soiled palms over the entire face, not leaving out a single spot equal to the breadth of a hair.
c.Passing soiled palms over both arms up to and including the elbows, not leaving out a single spot equal to the breadth of a hair.


At first, make an intention and after reciting "Bismillah Shareef", strike the hands on any solid matter which is related to the earth i.e. soil, mud, stones, marble or any such thing upon which is considerable dust. If the hands get soiled with too much dust, strike the base of one thumb upon the base of the other to loosen it. Then pass both hands over the entire face, not leaving out even a single spot equal to the breadth of a hair. The area around the lips which remains exposed in the natural state when the mouth is closed, should also be covered in this "Masah". If the person is bearded, he should then run his fingers through the beard.


Strike the hands again on the soil. Now perform "Masah" of the right arm, by placing the inner portion of all fingers, except the thumb, on the outer portion of the right arm. Pass the left hand fingers over the finger tips of the right arm up to the elbow. Coming back from the elbow pass the palm over the inner side of the right arm up to the wrist. Then do "Masah" of the right thumb using the inner side of the left thumb. Similarly, repeat the entire process for the left arm.


While striking the palms on the soil or mud, the fingers must be kept open. If dust has reached between the fingers, "Khilaal" should be done (by rubbing other fingers between them). If the palm had been struck on stone or other such thing by which dust does not reach between the fingers, then “Khilaal” becomes obligatory.


Women should take extra care during "Tayammum" by moving ornaments (such as rings) in order not to leave the area below them - whereas nail polish should be totally removed.


If cold water is harmful in sickness, warm water should be used if available. If warm water is unavailable, "Tayammum" should be done.


If any portion is covered by a bandage (or plaster) because of an injury, then "Masah" with wet hands should be done over such bandage - and the rest of the body washed as usual with water. If pouring water does not cause harm, water should be poured over such bandage. In due course if it is not harmful to do "Masah" over the injured part, "Masah" should be adopted immediately. Later when washing the injured portion will not cause harm, it will become obligatory to wash it. It should therefore be understood that when the ability exists, the superior act must be performed and the lesser act will no more suffice.


If very little time is left for offering Prayer, and it is feared that the time will lapse if one takes a bath or performs ablution, one must perform the "Tayammum" and offer the Prayer. It is however incumbent to repeat such Prayer after proper bathing or ablution.


If the excuse due to which "Tayammum" was done does not remain any more, it will make the "Tayammum" invalid. The occurrence of anything that breaks the ablution will also break the "Tayammum" which was done in place of ablution. Similarly the occurrence of anything which makes bathing compulsory will break the "Tayammum" which was done in place of bathing.


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Purifying

Purifying impure clothes


To purify an impure cloth, first wash it properly and then squeeze it with full strength until water does not drip from it any more, even if further strength is applied. Then wash the hands, and again wash the cloth, squeezing it with full strength until water does not drip from it any more even if further strength is applied. Wash the hands again and wash the cloth for a third time - then squeeze it with full strength until water does not drip from it any more even if further strength is applied. The cloth has now become pure.


If a person has applied full strength to squeeze out water from the cloth, it will be pure for him - but if another person having more strength squeezes it and some more water drips from it, then the cloth will be pure only for the former and not for the latter.

This rule should be remembered well. Every person should purify his / her own clothes or else purify them in running water. The method of doing this is to at first wash the clothes with soap or in a washing machine, and then put them in a utensil (e.g. bucket) and pour water into the utensil until the cloth gets covered in the water and the utensil starts overflowing. The flowing water will render the cloth pure.


Fine clothes, shoes, carpets etc., which get damaged due to wringing / squeezing, must be washed and dried until water does not drip from it any more. Then wash again and let it dry a second time. Then wash again and let it dry for a third time. This will make it pure.


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Adhaan

CHAPTER 3

THE CALL OF PRAYER (ADHAAN)

Yahya narrated it on the authority of his uncle that he had been sitting in the company of Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan (may Allah be well pleased with them) when the “Muazzin” called (Muslims) to Prayer. Muawiya said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) saying The “Muazzin”s will have the longest necks on the Day of Resurrection. (They will be the more deserving of Allah's mercy and reward) (Sunan Abu Dawood)


The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) has said:

“Whoever proclaims the “Adhaan” for 7 years, for the sake of reward, Allah keeps him secure from the fire of hell.''  (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)


The Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) has said:


“The one who proclaims the “Adhaan” only seeking reward, is like the blood stained martyr - and when he dies, his body will be safe from insects.” (Bahaare Shariat from Tibrani)


It is an Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah) to proclaim the “Adhaan” for offering Obligatory Prayers in the mosque. This command is like an Essential (Wajib) in the sense that if the “Adhaan” is not proclaimed, the entire community residing there will be offenders. It is undesirable (Makrooh) to proclaim the “Adhaan” without ablution. The “Adhaan” for each Obligatory Prayer can be proclaimed after the time starts for each respective Prayer. An “Adhaan” proclaimed prior to its time must be repeated in its due time.


Islamic Law (Shariah) has some specific words for the “Adhaan” (the Call for Prayer), which are as follows:


Allahu Akbar: Allahu Akbar: Allahu Akbar : Allahu Akbar
Ash-hadu al-laa ilaaha illAllah: Ash-hadu al-laa ilaaha illAllah

Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah: Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah

Hayya alas-Salaah: Hayya alas-Salaah

Hayya alal-Falaah: Hayya alal-Falaah

Allahu Akbar: Allahu Akbar

Laa ilaaha illAllah


Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest

I bear witness that there is no God except Allah, I bear witness that there is no God except Allah

I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

Come towards Prayer, come towards Prayer; Come towards Success, come towards Success

Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest; There is no God except Allah !!


While saying “Hayya alas-Salaah Hayya alal-Falaah” in the “Adhaan” or in the “Iqamah”, one must face right and left respectively. Upon hearing the “Adhaan”, it is commanded to reply to it - i.e. to repeat the words which the Caller (Muazzin) is saying, except for the words “Hayya alas-Salaah Hayya alal-Falaah”, for which one must say "Laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa Billah" (There is neither power nor strength, except with Allah).

In the “Adhaan” for the Dawn Prayer, the Caller must say the following words twice after “Hayya alas-Salaah Hayya alal-Falaah” - "AsSalaatu Khairum-minun-Naum" (Prayer is better than sleep). The response to these words is "Sadaqta wa bararta, wa bilHaqqi Nataqta" (You have confirmed the truth and you did well - and you have spoken a fact.)


While the “Adhaan” is being said, one must not indulge in any talk, recite Qur'an etc., nor indulge in other activities. Listen to the “Adhaan” attentively and reply to it. The same applies to the “Iqamah”. For the one who stays engrossed in talk while the “Adhaan” is being proclaimed, there is a danger of him dying an evil death. (We seek Allah's refuge)


When the Caller proclaims "Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah", one must respond by sending peace and blessings upon the Beloved Prophet - "SallAllahu alayka yaa Rasool Allah" (Allah's blessings be upon you, O the Messenger of Allah). It is recommended (Mustahab) to kiss one's thumbnails and touch them on one's eyes while saying, "Qurratu ayni beka yaa Rasool-Allah - Allahumma Matteyni Bis-Samye wal-Basar" (The coolness of my eyes is due to you, O' the Messenger of Allah !! O Allah, grant me the usage of the ears and the eyes). The one who does this will be taken by the Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) to Paradise.


The words proclaimed to announce the beginning of the congregational Prayers (with Jama'at), are called “Iqamah”. All words are the same as in the “Adhaan”, except that after the second "Hayya alal-Falaah", the following words are said twice - "Qad QamatisSalaah" (The Prayer has been established). In response to this, one should say "AqamahAllah wa adamaha maa damatiSamawate walArd" (May Allah keep it established, and grant it permanence as long as the skies and the earth remain.)


It is undesirable (Makrooh) for a person who comes in at the time of “Iqamah” to remain standing and wait - he should sit down and stand up only when the Proclaimer (Mukabbir) has announced "Hayya alal-Falaah". Likewise those who are already present in the Mosque must stand up at this moment. The same applies to the “Imam”.


If several “Adhaans” are heard, the listener must reply to the first one, and it is better if he replies to all. The “Adhaan” for the Sermon (Khutbah) must not be replied to by those who pray behind the “Imam” in congregation. (The follower is called Muqtadi).


After the “Adhaan”, one must send blessings upon the Noble Prophet (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam) and then supplicate as follows:


Allahumma rabba haazihi-daawatit-taammate was-salaatil-qaaemate aate sayyadenaa Muhammadan-ilWaseelata walFadeelata wad-darajatar-rafeeata wabas-hoo maqaamam-mahmoodanil-lazee wa-attahoo warzuqnaa shafaatahoo yawm-alqiyaamate, innaka laa tukhleful-meeaaad.


(O' Allah, the Lord of this perfect call and of the Prayer to be established !! Grant our leader Hadrat Muhammad, the highest point in Paradise, and Excellence, and the highest rank, and install him on the praiseworthy position which You have promised him - and grant us his intercession on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed You do not go against Your promise.)

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